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季进、孙连五︱夏济安指正陈福田编《大学一年

近来从微信同伙圈看到一条消息,昔时西南联大年夜外文系主任陈福田编的《大年夜学一年级英文教本》,由罗选夷易近教授等人翻译,改名为《西南联大年夜英文课》,刚刚从新出版了双语版。西南联大年夜培养了一大年夜批精彩人才,留下了太多的传奇故事,俨然已成为极具文化本钱的金字招牌。而且,曾在西南联大年夜读书的许渊冲教授说,昔时的西南联大年夜,“没有一小我不读《大年夜一英文》,没有一小我完全不受英文读本影响,不受潜移默化感化的。”无怪乎新版的《西南联大年夜英文课》豆瓣评分高达九点五分。

《西南联大年夜英文课》

这几年由于筹备编撰《夏志清夏济安学术年谱》,我每年都邑去纽约,到位于哥伦比亚大年夜学相近第逐一三街的夏志清家里造访夏师母,网络各类资料。看到《大年夜学一年级英文教本》从新出版的消息,我忽然想到,在夏济安老师留下的一堆资猜中,我曾经发明一份手稿——《对陈福田〈大年夜一英文教本〉附注的正误、补遗和质疑》。手稿应是1946年夏济安任教于西南联大年夜时所作,分封面和正文,共九页,共提出十六则意见,分为正误、补遗和质疑三类。此文不曾刊出,当为夏济安佚文。此时公之于众,或许不无益处。

夏济安的助教证书

夏济安在大年夜陆从教时期,主要以最根基的英文教授教化为主。1945年秋,夏济安进入西南联合大年夜学任教,所教授的便是大年夜一英文。这门课一样平常由职级较低的教员讲授,属于根基性的教授教化事情。据《国立西南联合大年夜学各院系必修选修课程表(1945年至1946年度)》可知,夏济安所教授的课程有三门:英文壹(作文)H组、英文壹(作文)L组、英文壹(读本)M组,与他同时教授大年夜一英文课的还有杨周翰、卞之琳、钱学熙、王佐良、金隄等人。据夏济安自己所说,他所教的三门课中最成功的是读本课,全班险些无人缺席,而两班作文课则只有二十人阁下出席,无意偶尔则更少。他还谈到,“着实我教读本顶长于,因解说清楚,穿插富厚,颇易惹人兴趣。作文则选材难,讲来又不免逝世板也”

(《夏济安日记》,人夷易近文学出版社,2011年,93页)

。夏济安所应用的读本课本,恰是由陈福田编的《大年夜学一年级英文教本》()。该教本第一版于1939年,对西南联大年夜的青年学子确凿影响颇大年夜,然则,夏济安对该教本却意见颇多,不仅对教本所选的文章不满,而且还从中发明谬误多少,并草成《对陈福田〈大年夜一英文教本〉附注的正误、补遗和质疑》一文。此文不曾刊出,也不知道夏济安有没有给陈福田本人看过,至少重新版来看,夏济安所提正误、补遗或质疑处,一仍其旧。或许夏济安本人出于各种斟酌并未向陈福田提出,或许陈福田并不吸收夏济安的意见,这些都已成了不复能解的历史之谜了。

Freshman Readings in English

如前所述,夏济安所提出的意见共十六处,分为正误、补遗和质疑三类。此中,第三、四、六处意见为“正误”,比如夏济安指出教本所引“Sweet day, so pure, so calm, so bright”一诗,so pure应为so cool,系出英国形而上学派书生George Herbert(乔治·赫伯特)的“Virtue”(《美德》)一诗。第五、九、十、十一、十三、十四、十五处为“质疑”,比如夏济安觉得教滥觞基本注nonelect有误,引用了Keats(济慈)的“Lamia”(《拉弥亚》)诗句作对比,以增进理解。第一、二、七、八、十二、十六处意见为“补遗”,比如教本对Venus of Lucretius为何像“碧霞云”未作出评释,夏济安便引Lucretius(卢克莱修)的哲学长诗“De Rerum Natura”(《物性论》)作对照。从这些商议意见可以看出,夏济安弥补的评释“穿插富厚,惹人兴趣”,他所阅读的材料多,关联性强,引述了诸如济慈、莎士比亚、卢克莱修、华兹华斯、乔治·赫伯特、托马斯·古德温、W. H. 赫德孙等人的诗文词句,充分显示了夏济安对泰西文学的熟稔程度。不仅如斯,凡是有疑心的词汇,夏济安必查《牛津大年夜字典》进行具体对比,其严谨程度亦可想而知。

1950年,夏济安流离喷鼻港时期,曾在草创阶段的新亚书院短暂任教。新亚书院所用的英文课本也应用了陈福田所编英文教本,夏济安对此颇有微词,总感觉里面所选的好文章太少,教起来不起劲,门生也难以得益

(《夏济安夏志清手札集》第一卷,台北联经出版公司,2015年,344页)

。1950岁尾,夏济安进入台湾大年夜学任教,慢慢开始教授“小说选读”“英国文学史”等课程,还在赵丽莲主编的《门生英文文摘》(

Student English Digest

)撰写评注专栏,每期选文一篇,如火头解牛般对文章的修辞、布局、背景等进行细致剖析,深受广大年夜门生喜好。在谈毛姆的《康德的日常生活》(Kant the Man)一文时,夏济安说起,“海内有几种英文选本都选用毛姆的《中国纪行》(

On a Chinese Screen

)里的文章,着实他那本书里的翰墨,既不达,又不简,并不够以代表他的风格”

(《今世英文选评注》,外语教授教化与钻研出版社,2013年,195页)

。在这里,他所指向的英文选本显然包括陈福田编《大年夜学一年级英文教本》,教本中所选文章最多的便是毛姆,有三篇,即“The Beast of Burden”(《负重的牲畜》)“The Song of The River”(《河之歌》)“The Philosopher”(《哲学家》),均选自其《中国纪行》(又译《在中国的屏风上》)。

夏志清与夏济安

为什么夏济安对陈福田编《大年夜学一年级英文教本》如斯不满?着实说到底,这表现了今世中国大年夜学英文教导理念的不同。陈福田曾任西南联大年夜外文系主任,他在抗日战斗时期所编的《大年夜学一年级英文教本》,成为大年夜学英文教导通用课本。西南联大年夜的英文教导之目的在于为国家夷易近族培养通识人才、博雅之士,是以,教本所选文章重视的是其社会功用代价,能够直接向门生传输道义思惟和代价不雅念。教本中所选的文章诸如《夷易近主的气力》《通识教导》《教导的目的》《大年夜门生的社会代价》等等,切实着实可以说“将先辈的教导理念融入到英语教授教化之中,在提升英语涉猎技能,欣赏英语范文、西方经典之外,更紧张的是通报了一种深切的人文关切和高尚的道德情操。涉猎这类课本,门生学到的不是片纸只字的说话常识,或者猎奇的故工作节在这里,门生知道作甚教导,作甚学,若何学,为谁学,若何学有所为。在这里,门生的英文能力得以加强,健全人格得以培养,精神天下得以升华”

(陈福田编、罗选夷易近等译:《西南联大年夜英文课》,中译出版社,2017年,第4页)

。可见,陈福田所代表的西南联大年夜的教导理念,更多地是从“造人”的理念启程,向门生通报“深切的人文关切和高尚的道德情操”。而夏济安的教导理念却有所不合,他的目标并非输出某种思惟不雅念,而更强调对门生基础说话能力和欣赏水平的培养。其目的也绝非仅仅前进门生运用英文的现实效用,而是盼望教会门生欣赏柔美的英文,进而深入地感想熏染和理解西方文化不雅念。1950年至1959年,夏济安在台湾大年夜学执教时期,他有时机自由选择文本,实践自己的英文教法,得到了浩繁粉丝。他经久撰写英文评注专栏,对英文的理解、阐释和翻译,险些达至钱锺书所说的“化境”,后来结集为《今世英文选评注》,不停到现在,依然泽被后世,影响深远。本日,当我们高度评价西南联大年夜英文教导理念的时刻,彷佛也不应该忘怀夏济安曾经做出的珍贵探索与紧张供献。

《今世英文选评注》

对陈福田《大年夜一英文教本》附注的正误、补遗和质疑

夏济安

陈福田教授所编的《大年夜一英文教本》(商务出版)是本采纳很广的教科书。全书三百四十九页,课文占二百二十八页,自二百三十一页起都是隶属于各课的评释和演习问题,共占全书的三分之一强。此中演习问题所占篇幅不多,大年夜部分都是评释,这许多评释对付教授教化双方,其实便利不少。不过在这些评释里面,一个采纳这本书做讲义的教员每每能发明些搭档。现在把笔者所看到的应该改正或弥补的地方,或者认为有疑问的地方,枚举鄙人,敬就正于高明。

1.“to the Lady of the mountain, Pi Hsia-Yüen, who is at once the Venus of Lucretius—‘goddess of procreation, god as the clouds, blue as the sky,’one inscription calls her—etc.”(pp. 21-22,A Sacred Mountain, by G. Lowes Dickinson)

关于这一句,陈老师只给了一个评释:“Pi Hsia-yüen——碧霞云”(p. 250),可是Venus of Lucretius彷佛也该阐明一下。中国门生对付Venus都有些隐隐的不雅念,然则他们大年夜多不知道Venus是Aeneas的母亲,和罗马人是崇拜Venus的。关于罗马书生Lucretius的年代等等,可得诸通俗百科全书,这里不赘。至于Venus of Lucretius为何像“碧霞云”,这里可从Lucretius的长诗“De Rerum Natura”(“of the Nature of Things”,按:英译应为“On the Nature of Things”)中抄写一段,以资对照:

Mother of Rome, delight of gods and men,

Dear Venus that beneath the gliding stars

Makest to teem the many-voyaged main

And fruitful lands-for all of living things

Through thee alone are evermore conceived,

Through thee are risen to visit the great sun—

(W. E. Leonard英译,Everyman's Library版,p.3)

2. “Great god, I’d rather be(夏济安附注:此行不全,应往右移,此处排列法系照抄陈老师书。)

A pagan suckled in a creed outworn;

So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,

Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn”

(p.22,课文同上)

这四行诗未注明出处,仅“suckled”(包括“pagan”)“forlorn”两字有注(p.251)。按该诗为Wordsworth所著,原为十四行诗,无题,首行:

“The world is too much with us;late and soon.”

3. The Roman Empire(p.23)—(注)—established by Augustus(27 B.C.), divided by Theodosius (A.D.395) into western and eastern, Western down till 1806.

“Western down till 1806”非但翰墨不妥,且与史实不符。西罗马帝国亡于476A.D.,1806年系Francis II辞神圣罗马帝国天子尊号之年,神圣罗马帝国(Holy Roman Empire)与罗马帝国不能混同。

4. decadent aesthetes(p.25)—(注)—lovers or appreciators of beauty who cling to theories that are declining or dying.(p.252)此注误。Decadent与theories无关,按《牛津大年夜字典》()解decadent曰:“decadent—said of a French school which affects to belong to an age of decadence in literature&art.”中文有“颓废文人”一语,“颓废”两字想即本此。

OED

P.35 the sauce to meat is ceremony p.258(按:手稿如斯)

P.36 Mephistophelean eyebrow p.259(按:手稿如斯)

5.“I remember going to the British museum one day to read up the treatment for some slight ailment of which I had a touch——hay fever,I fancy it was.”(p.47. The Imaginary Invalid, by Jerome K. Jerome)

注:touch—twinge or light attack of fever(p.267). 按此处touch仅有“slight tinge or trace”之意,否则,“a light attack of fever of some ailment”不通。

6.“Sweet day, so pure, so calm, so bright,

The bridal of the Earth and Sky!”

(p.55. The Widow&Her Son, by Washington Irving)

此两行诗未注明出处。按出自George Herbert: Virtue一首,原诗“so pure”作“so cool”。

7.“I recalled the graceful antics of a couple of birds that the mythical Abel observed during his flight with Rima to the land of her birth.”(p.35. A Pair of Woodpeckers, Anonymous)

本文前面作者虽已阐明方才在读Hudson之

green mansions

,且陈老师也已为Hudson与

green mansions

作注(p.258),但Abel与Rima为何人也应一注。按此处所指“antics of a couple of birds”见

green mansions

第十四章,

Modern Library

(旧式)簿子pp.178-179。

8.“The third democracy to vindicate itself is our own during the last few weeks.”(p.75.

The Strength of Democracy

, by Walter Lippmann.)

此处陈老师仅有一注our own—Lippmann, an American, is here speaking of his own country, the United States of America. 着实此语包孕史实甚多,宜详注。按1933年美国经济惊恐,罗斯福总统向国会提出紧急法案,予总统以处置惩罚大年夜权,是为罗总统新政之始。Lippmann此处正论述法英两国为何以权力集中政府,降服经济危急,美国亦为法解决,应加具体阐明。

9.“Habit a second nature!……”

(p.107.

Habit

, by William James)

陈老师先解释nature,然后再说:“Hence, second nature means one's real nature, something that has become so much a part of the individual that he cannot escape from it.” (p.303) 既称second nature,自然并非real nature,“second nature means one's real nature”一语中后三字应删去。

10. Practical Joker(p.107)(注)—A practical joke is a joke put into practice…(中略)He who practices such witticisms is called a practical joker. (p.303)

此处witticisms仍以改用joke为是,因一则joke与witticism本非一物;再则witticism只可说,弗成做(practice)。

11.“You sought innocent relaxation,but you are one of the nonelect and have gone to the place prepared for you.”(p.151.

Every Man's Natural Desire to be Somebody Else

, by S. M. Crothers)

注nonelect—nonchosen, that is, not belonging to the group that is up to date on the latest literary development.(p.321)

按nonelect本系基督教神学用语,指不为上帝所遴选之人,似与up-to-dateness无关。此处用法意义似稍晦,若与下引之句对比钻研,或可明白:

A doubtful tale from faery land(按:此句应为That is a doubtful tale from faery land)

Hard for the none-elect to understand

——Keats:Lamia II.5-6.

12.“Or he might be a saint—not a commonplace modern saint who does chores and attends tiresome committee meetings, but a saint such one reads about……”(p.152.课文同上)

(注)modern saint—is a modern man who has to work so hard to earn a living that he has become sanctified. (p.322.)

评释意义欠明,为何work hard即能成为saint?按

OED

解saint曰:“a person of extraordinary holiness of life, sometimes ironically, A person making an outward profession of piety.”

此讥讽意,殆即本文所用者。Do chores而 attends committee meetings者,大年夜致即指社会上一样平常善士之流之人物。

13.“We have the authority of Benjamin Disraeli that royalty must be treated with abundant flattery. I seize my trowel.”(p.158. The Philosopher, by W. S. Maugham)

(注)trowel—weapon. The trowel is a bricklayer’s tool,used also as a gardening tool. (p.326) 此两句大年夜可钻研,Authority of Benjamin Disraeli无注。Disraeli为何许人,想易寻到。渠论flattery一语,系暮年对Matthew Arnold所说者:

“you have heard me called a flattery, and it is true. everyone like flattery, and, when you come to royalty, you should lay it on with a trowel.”

Life of Benjamin Disraeli, by G.E.Buckle

Vol.vi, p.463. John Murray. London.1920

“Lay it on with a trowel”一针言自从莎士比亚在

As You Like It

用过今后,

Celia—well said; that was laid on with a trowel.

(Act I.sc.ii)

早已成为通俗用语,通俗字典均载。今解作“weapon”,实是大年夜误。

14.“you cannot fence without an antagonist,nor challenge all comers in disputation before you have supported a thesis; and in like manner, it stands to reason, you cannot learn to converse till you have the world to converse with…”(P.186, What is a University, by John Henry Newman)

(注)fence—debate (p.341)

按fence虽可引申作debate之意,此处仍可作“比剑”解较妥。至少,不应将其意义固定为debate,而削减翰墨之弹性。

15. “…the periodical meetings…such as the British Association. Such gatherings would to many persons appear at first sight simply preposterous. Above all subjects of study science is conveyed, is propagated, by books, or by private teachings; …discoveries are made in solitude. what have philosophers to do with festive celebrities, and panegyrical solemnities with mathematical and physical truth?”(p.187.课文同上)

(注)panegyrical solemnities—a ceremony of praise. (p.341) “a ceremony of praise”一语意义不明。细看高低文,Newman似只评论争论开会与科学钻研之关系,并未涉及praise。何故忽来praise之意义?按panegyrical原出自希腊πανηγυρι一字,原有an assembly of the people,a high festival之意。今英翰墨典中于panegyrical下,仍有“of the nature of a general assembly”一废(obsolete)义,

OED

并引Thomas Goodwin之句如下:

“In the primitive church the persons of the bishops…were chosen by all the people, and by panegyrical meetings.”

此虽古义,然Newman实常用古字古义者,(其文中且多希腊字),此处仍以照古意讲为通。故panegyrical solemnities实即即是festive celebrities,Newman为行文求变更,与festive celebrities之后,有意又换一说法。

16. 陈书于廿八年仲春第一版,评释中关于人名数则,应参考近来材料而随时更改,惟查卅五年仲春所出版之第十一版,材料仍然,亟应更正。如Galsworthy(p.309),Hitler(p.333)均已逝世,Sir Samuel Hoare(p.335)已于1944年被封为Lord Templewood,现为上院议员。凡此均望陈老师于下次新版时更正。

夏济安手稿

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